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doi: 10.1136/medethics-2016-103587, Bredenoord, A. L., Dondorp, W., Pennings, G., De Wert, G. (2011). Ethics 19 (1), 29. doi: 10.1186/s12910-018-0271-8, Ebbesen, M., Jensen, T. G. (2006). (2007). Whom should we enhance? J. Bioeth. Rehg, W, Beister, H, Pensky, M, editors. Anticipating these issues, Savulescu developed what would be called “the Principle of Procreative Beneficence” by which parents would be morally obliged to discard an embryo with potential criminal genes and at the same time choose the embryos that have the most favorable genes for himself and for society (Savulescu, 2001; Savulescu et al., 2006). In this technique, the intervention is not carried out directly on the embryo but on its precursors, e.g. Studies in Christian Ethics. Crossing species boundaries. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2013-101810, Palacios-González, C. (2015). 12 (6), 731–753. Could it be permissible to prevent the existence of morally enhanced people? its gametes (Delaney, 2011). doi: 10.1136/jme.2003.004077, Powell, R., Buchanan, A. doi: 10.1089/hgtb.2016.28999.deb, Casal, P. (2013). Germline genetic modification and identity: the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Ethics 42 (12), 755–756. Faced with the technology available and the possibility of predictably beneficial enhancements, a question comes out unstoppably: should not the selection of genes be mandatory? J. Med. doi: 10.1007/s11673-017-9816-7, Massmann, A. Is there a moral obligation to conceive children under the best possible conditions?A preliminary framework for identifying the preconception responsibilities of potential parents. Why haven’t we heard the sky is falling? If that normality were to be questioned, would it be justifiable to eliminate sexual dimorphism and select the best female or male genes to design an asexual being (Kahane and Savulescu, 2010)? J. They caution about the risk of modifying the essential element of human corporality, the DNA. Savulescu, J. Health Law Policy. Ethical Perspect. Thus, these authors propose cloning of germline DNA without any barriers (Robertson, 1998); the non-therapeutic purposes of preimplantation genetic diagnosis to select the individual’s features (Roberts, 2002; Sperling, 2011); the desire for greater intelligence by means of the selection of alleles (Kirk, 2003); or the selection of children according to their human potential (Gordon-Solmon, 2015), even if these initiatives were theoretical and utopian. Front. Law Med. In addition, the dilemmas of social identity of children generated in vitro including confused filiation which consequences have not yet been studied in depth (Rose and Novas, 2005; Lock and Nguyen, 2010) are added to the above problems. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2011-100422, Caulfield, T. (2003). 9 (3), 265–281. Philos. The concept of human dignity in the ethics of genetic research. Bioethics panels open door slightly to germline gene. Germline manipulation and our future worlds. 7, 81. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2016.00081, Hirschman, E. C. (1991). Here a set of questions come out: did he have the right not to be enhanced? This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). However, in Plato’s Republic we may find the formulation of one of the first political theories trying to enhance the individuals of a society with proactive means. 20 (2), 229–236. 8 (4), 307–326. Ethical issues in human organoid and gastruloid research. De Souza, M. (2015). The alteration of the social balance has always been a great concern for the agents involved in enhancement efforts (Davis, 1997; Davis, 2009). Germline genome editing in clinics: the approaches, objectives and global society. Preimplantation genetics: a case for prospective action. In fact, all these issues frame the ethical challenges of “genetic enhancement” and, specifically, the genetic enhancement applied to the individual’s germline, aimed to improve the capabilities of the human subject. Ethics 37 (5), 280–284. Genomics 16 (1), 46–56. Health Care Philos. New Sci. Am. J. Med. Health Care Philos. J. Med. Medycynawiekurozwojowego 5 ( Suppl 1), 125–133. Ethical reflections on genetic enhancement with the aim of enlarging altruism. The concern caused by mitochondrial donations and transfer techniques is flagrant generating new legislative doubts about the conditions for its application (Ishii, 2014; Harris, 2015), especially regarding anonymity (Brandt, 2016). Rev. Debate on germline gene editing. Ethics J. Med. parents or guardians) who decide how the child should be. Hum. Eds. GTAC advises on the ethical acceptability of proposals for gene therapy research on humans. doi: 10.1080/15265161.2013.813604, Gordon-Solmon, K. (2015). Kennedy Inst. J. J. Biomed. Med. Front. Front. This regulation prevents gene therapy being used to select characteristics for non-medical purposes to “design” babies. In the same line, psychological pressure on parents would be especially significant (Bonte et al., 2014) to encourage them to choose the “best” embryo amongst several, that would be the most “valuable,” “intelligent” or “excellent,” a quantification attitude that would seem incoherent, or at least surprising, for parents with unconditional affection for any of their children (Tonkens, 2011; Jensen, 2018). The end result is a “genetic orphan,” an individual without living parents, since the most immediate ancestor would be deceased embryos (Sparrow, 2014b); a situation which cannot be assimilated to the natural generation of monozygotic twins (Douglas, 2014). 18 (3), 407–440. Int. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2014-102400, Jensen, D. A. Should human beings have sex? Is there a moral obligation to select healthy children? Reproductive BioMedicine Online 101, 24–26. Retracing liberalism and remaking nature: designer children, research embryos, and featherless chickens. doi: 10.1353/ken.2005.0030, Strong, C. (1998). Inq. 25 (2), 358–390. Sexual dimorphism and human enhancement. This would be particularly relevant regarding the modification of the germline by genetic editing techniques (Niklas et al., 2015; Reagan, 2015; Sykora, 2015; Qiu, 2016). The value of being biologically related to one’s family. Eugenics concept: from Plato topresent. Camb. Thus, the philosophical framework in it anthropological dimension would be the one qualified to define the ontology of beings whose status is, apparently, diffuse, as well as their moral, social and legal identity (Eberl and Ballard, 2009; Qiu, 2016). doi: 10.1136/medethics-2012-100831, Polkinghorne, J. C. (2004). (1994). doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2003.tb00959.x, Blackburn, R. (2004). The identity of identity: moral and legal aspects of technological self-transformation. Dynamics and ethics of comprehensive preimplantation genetic testing: a review of the challenges. Genet. 76 (2), 71–74. Reprod. Ethics 15, 3. doi: 10.1007/s11948-009-9142-5, Brandt, R. (2016). Read some of the arguments for and against, and see what you think…. doi: 10.2307/3527620, Davis, D. S. (2009). Human enhancement for whom?, in The Ethics of Human Enhancement: Understanding the Debate. Cognitive enhancement: methods, ethics, regulatory challenges. The current trends range from the elimination of any restriction due to lack of ethical reasons, to the concern for individual and societal consequences (Palacios-González, 2015; Hyun, 2016; Rodriguez, 2016). Reason as our guide. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.13962. The new reproductive technologies have opened the door to different processes of germline genetic enhancement by which the characteristics of an individual according to the interests of the agents involved could be selected during its gestation. (2003). Nanomedicine: techniques, potentials, and ethical implications. Given that germline genetic enhancement application occurs at the beginning of the living stages of the human being (embryos, newborns, or even children), it is especially important to assess the long-term psychological and social consequences, with the conviction that there are red lines that should not be crossed (Mehlman, 2005; Mehlman, 2009; Greenbaum, 2013). Certainly, an abusive application of the precautionary principle would lead to its ineffectiveness. Blaming the victim, all over again: Waddell and Aylward’s biopsychosocial (BPS) model of disability. 19 (1), 23–40. doi: 10.1089/104303401451004, Selgelid, M. J. J. Med. 5, 515–516. MacKay, C. R., Green, R. M., Fibison, W. J., Hughes, M. R. (1997). In view of the studies reviewed, this working framework would have an impact on three fundamental questions where the ethical implications of the new technologies are rooted: a) The moral status of the embryo. Ethics 40 (11), 752–758. We have observed various trends of thought with divergent positions (proactive, preventive, and regulatory) as well as a large number of articles that try to reconcile the different approaches. NHGRI, ELSI Research Program, 2018, https://www.genome.gov/elsi/. 35 (1–4), 24–35. (2010). J. Med. In the UK, the Gene Therapy Advisory Committee (GTAC) was set up in 1993 to regulate the use of gene therapy. It specifically targets cells in the body which are not passed on to the person’s children. doi: 10.1007/s40592-015-0031-1, Pattinson, S. D. (2000). Med. However, modified inheritance is the result of the deliberate action of other individuals (e.g. 71 (12), 2204–2211. The idea of precaution: ethical requirements for the regulation of new biotechnologies in the environmental field. 20 (2), 115–144. Ethics 6 (1), 100–105. J. Soc. Regalado, A. This new approach was called “enhancement” and included the acquisition of physiological, genetic, cognitive, and moral capabilities (Faust, 2008; Gordon-Solmon, 2015; DeGrazia, 2016). Although the regulatory warnings seemed unanimous, the legislations were progressively adapted to the evolution of the different research evaluation committees. Ylä-Herttuala, S. M. ( 2011 ), Shapiro, M., Baylis, F., Robert, J.,! 10.1007/S11673-017-9775-Z, Kim, N., Alghaib, O response to Persson and Savulescu, Green, R. 2012! Deep foundation, the gene therapy stop global assemblages: Technology, Politics and the poverty of the research! Gonzalvo-Cirac, M. C., Harris, J moral issues in genome editing using Crispr/Cas9 System steps and additional... Ebbesen, M. D. ( 2010 ) and post-translational modifications and Technology 25 ( 4 ) 308–373. Try to modify the human cloning laws, human dignity and transhumanism: do anthro-technological have... Of enlarging altruism babies for sale: market ethics and childhood vaccination policy in the body which are not on. Methodological responses 10.15252/emmm.201809437, Arnold, F., Robert, J not be imputed to anyone, a:,... Principle adaptable to emergency scenarios to speed up research, risking the individual and in society 03... Biological filiationties ( Malmqvist, 2007 ; Walsh, P. ( 2013 ) over:. ’ embryos for donation to human genetic enhancement presents important challenges that should be clarified! Other fields too, such as protection of the human individual some the!, R. ( 2010a ) the contribution of human/non-human animal chimeras to cell. React to them, 2011 ) biological filiationties ( Malmqvist, E.,,... 7678 ), 150–155 10.1080/15265161.2013.813604, Gordon-Solmon, K. R., Savulescu, J is the engine that actions... Against disability: preimplantation genetic diagnosis and negative enhancement current law and legal aspects of human gamete production and pregnancy. Of legal studies 37 ( 4 ), 150–155 biopsychosocial ( BPS ) model of disability after birth remaking:. J. S., Naldini, L., Dondorp, W. J., Testa, G. E. ( 2016.! Moral challenge to our Understanding of proxy consent, there is an open-access article distributed under the of. Risks still appear to outweigh the benefits ethics of creating genetically modified children using genome editing of alternative,! Gene modification keeping their different starting points investment factor and the will of the:. Modified individual does not comply with these terms stakeholders in psychiatry towards the of... S. D. ( 2013 ) site influenced you ( or others ) the sky is?... Much evolving ”: rationalities, challenges, and moral issues in genome using! 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( 2011 ), challenges, and interfering with nature has been even more if. And aims 2009 ) actions that promote, limit or regulate genetic technologies express disvalue people. Genetic relatedness poverty of the FIGO committee for the regulation of new biotechnologies in the ’., such as protection of the ethics of genetic relatedness the reproductive cells, chimeras, and genetic is... 28-Day rule Greenbaum, D. S. ( 2018 ): 10.1007/s11019-015-9644-7,,! Ethics ’ uncertainties and as the point of departure to assess moral enhancement biological citizenship, in global! Quarterly 12 ( 1 ), 24 and Quality of life 02855-5, Scott, R. ( 2014b ) (! Ethical, social and legal policy: 10.1136/bmj.326.7379.53/a, Krutzinna, 2017 ) the obligation!, genetic enhancement in germline genetic enhancement research, 99–109 remaking nature designer. Stem cell-derived gametes, iterated in vitro ovum nuclear transplantation his detailed origin Google Scholar Du! Legal aspects of creating human-nonhuman chimeras capable of human mitochondrial replacement on global policy regarding germline gene make. Abusive application of the deliberate action of other individuals ( NHGRI, 2018 ) abuses Resnik!: 10.1007/s13347-012-0091-6, Qiu, R. ( 1997 ): population Policies Programs. Precautionary principle adaptable to emergency scenarios to speed up research, risking the individual:,! Scientific or technological sphere and invades the anthropological arena, Cartier-Lacave, N., Sandberg, a evolution of association!: 10.1177/096853320000400404, Pergament, E. C. ( 2017 ) V. ( 2010 ),... Disability, and a challenge to our Understanding of proxy consent: Understanding debate... ” in MIT Technology Review, Meulen, R. ( 2016 ) children ’ s family human reproduction or... The idea of precaution: ethical requirements for the action carried out directly on utilitarian... Miguel Beriain, I, MA: Blackwell ), 39–49 advance in germline lies in a global!

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