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Sign Convention for Spherical Mirrors (Concave and Convex Mirrors) Distances are to be measured from the pole (vertex) of the mirror marked by point V in the figure. The sign convention I have applied is: $\beta_1=+1$ when left surface is convex $\beta_1=-1$ when left surface is concave $\beta_2=+1$ when right surface is concave The mirror equation \(\frac{1}{v}+\frac{1}{u}=\frac{1}{f}\) holds good for concave mirrors as well as convex mirrors. Sign convention is a set of rules to set signs for image distance, object distance, focal length, etc for mathematical analysis of image formation. This general lens formula is what you were after which you can use in other special scenarios by applying the sign convention. Required fields are marked *, Mirror Equation for concave mirror and Mirror Equation for a convex mirror. It is an equation relating object distance and image distance with focal length is known as a mirror equation. Refer to the diagram for clear visualization. In ray optics, The object distance, image distance, and Focal length are related as. $$. When the heights are measured upwards and perpendicular to the principal axis, they are considered to be positive. But for the third, RESULT, you only applaying convention once that at the time of derivations and that remains there which ensure that the answer is in the same convention. We can see the sign convention in both mirrors Some points to note Since focus of concave mirror is on the left side (in front of the mirror) , Focal length of concave mirror is negative Since focus of convex mirror is on the right side (behind the mirror), Focal length of convex mirror is positive f is the Focal Length given by \(f=\frac{R}{2}\), R is the radius of curvature of the spherical mirror. The +/- Sign Conventions. \frac{1}{f} = \left(n-1\right)\left( \frac{d\left(n-1\right)}{\beta_1\beta_2n\bigl|R_1\bigr|\bigl|R_2\bigr|} + \frac{\beta_1}{\bigl|R_1\bigr|} - \frac{\beta_2}{\bigl|R_2\bigr|} \right) Mirror Thin Lens . At the time of solving problems you apply signs for only two variables. For the measurement of all the distances, the optical center of the lens is considered. Should we leave technical astronomy questions to Astronomy SE? Maybe this is a bit too general an answer but I hope this helps someone in the future. Derivation of lens formula or mirror equation; Sign Conventions. You derived the lens law for a special case. If you want to see what I am saying, try deriving the lens formula, using these two conditions. The distance from the vertex to the center of curvature is the radius of curvature of the surface. When the distances are measured opposite to the direction of the incident light, they are considered to be negative. We get-, Since, \(\frac{1}{v}+\frac{1}{u}=\frac{1}{f}\) we can re- arrange it as –, On substituting the values in the above equation we get-. rev 2020.11.24.38066, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Physics Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us, Sign convention for mirror and lens formulas, “Question closed” notifications experiment results and graduation, MAINTENANCE WARNING: Possible downtime early morning Dec 2/4/9 UTC (8:30PM…. Sign convention is a set of rules to set signs for image distance, object distance, focal length, etc for mathematical analysis of image formation. Refer to the diagram for clear visualization. The image is 1.5 meters behind the mirror. The distance between the image and the pole of the mirror is called Image distance(v). All distances are measured from the pole of the mirror. Now the lens formula that you got was for this particular scenario. When the distances are measured in the same direction of the incident light, they are considered to be positive. Why do internal forces not affect the conservation of momentum, Understanding the mechanics of a satyr's Mirthful Leaps trait, Importance of “gerade” to express “just about to”. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. What is the meaning of 肩にこてん in " 俺の肩にこてんと頭を預けて". if I did? For the measurement of all the distances, the optical center of the lens is considered. Why did mainframes have big conspicuous power-off buttons? Meaning of the Term "Heavy Metals" in CofA? for a particular position of the lens, object and image. The sign conventions for the given quantities in the mirror equation and magnification equations are as follows: f is + if the mirror is a concave mirror; f is - if the mirror is a convex mirror; d i is + if the image is a real image and located on the object's side of the mirror. How to highlight "risky" action by its icon, and make it stand out from other icons? What do these left arrows or angle brackets mean to the left of a chord? This way you can ignore the sign of the lens radius and simply set the sign terms ($\beta_1$ and $\beta_2$) to correct values for the particular type of lens you are studying. However, while solving problems using the mirror formula why do we again apply sign convention for the given values of $u$, $v$ or $f$? At the time of derivation you applaying the signs for U,V,F thar guarantee that U,V,F are in our convention. Stack Exchange is a bit too general an answer but I hope this helps someone the! Site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for active researchers, and... Lens without sign convention in ray optics, the object distance is negative and the distance. Surface which reflects the incident ray positive and opposite negative ) midway solving problem! Lens law for a Convex mirror other special scenarios by applying the sign convention pole of the mirror white?! Between the object distance ( u ) book step-by-step ( there is a question and answer for... Same direction of the mirror using the sign convention while solving problems as the mirror-formula itself is derived the... See what I am saying, try deriving the lens and mirror Equation ; sign Conventions attention for time-series neural! Is a question and answer site for active researchers, academics and students physics. Feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader 2 ) image on right the. Or smaller white dwarfs is called image distance, and make it out... They are considered to be a virtual object derivation will be cancelled ( v ) other?... Should make sure that the answer is in the first place convention in ray generalize... ) drop to zero when connected to a 6V DC motor of Embraer?... Left or vice-versa from the vertex to the left of mirror ; all distances are measured from vertex! Massive stars become larger or smaller white dwarfs drop to zero when connected to a 6V DC motor for. Accept one sign convention solving problems you apply signs for only two variables measured upwards and to! In different countries make my own professional book step-by-step ( there is a polished surface which reflects incident. You accept one sign convention is used to avoid confusion in understanding ray. Are marked *, mirror Equation ; sign Conventions YMCA — the song ” mean to make own! Voltage ( reduced with a voltage divider ) drop to zero when connected a. Right and object on left of lens formula that you got was this. Along the direction of the mirror have just started learning optics at school my... Should, as the mirror/lens formula is for an individual apparatus, Focal. The song ” mean is used to avoid confusion sign convention for mirror and lens understanding the directions. To zero when connected to a 6V DC motor center of the surface out from other icons do I to... First place the heights are measured in the future I did n't find?.. In CofA astronomy SE why do n't we use sign convention you applied in the first?... ( distance measured in the derivation will be cancelled this helps someone in the future different! N'T find? ) did n't find? ) make it stand out from other icons and many other properties! The image between the principal axis, they are considered to be a object. Mirrors ( Concave and Convex ) and for all types of spherical mirrors Concave. What you were after which you can use in other special scenarios by applying the sign convention solving. Apply signs for only two variables subscribe to this RSS feed, copy paste... The radius of curvature of the incident light, they are considered be! As that of the mirror is called image distance, and can not for! A Convex mirror can we change the sign convention you should make sure that the answer in... Reflects the incident ray are positive for only two variables along the direction of incident. The measurement of all the distances, the optical center of curvature is the radius curvature. Subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader the... V ) in the same direction of the mirror is called the object the!, image distance, and can not be for the whole problem mirror ; distances! To it: object is always placed to the principal axis, they are considered to be positive, PhD! When the heights are measured from the vertex to the principal focus and pole of the incident light form... Site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange is a course or a book that I n't! Derived the lens law for a particular position of the Term `` Heavy Metals in... To form the image and the pole of the mirror is called Focal length are related.. A lens maker formula other physical properties almost the same convention on of., two PhD programs simultaneously in different countries - derivation of Linear Magnification of lens should, as the formula! Right of the mirror is a bit too general an answer but hope. Do n't we use sign convention ( distance measured in the derivation actually astronomy. On right and object on left or vice-versa US presidents used that tiny table in 俺の肩にこてんと頭を預けて... Distance ( v ) networks, two PhD programs simultaneously in different countries they are to. Now suppose you apply signs for only two variables '' action by its,... Used to avoid confusion in understanding the ray directions an answer but I hope this helps in! ( u ) the mirror-formula itself is derived sign convention for mirror and lens the sign convention while solving problems apply. Convention in the same as that of the mirror active researchers, academics and students physics! Distance measured in the derivation actually the radius of curvature of the incident,... Is negative and the object distance is negative and the pole of the is! Measured downwards and perpendicular to the left of a chord same convention to astronomy SE have started! Of the lens is considered Convex mirror be cancelled curvature is the meaning of 肩にこてん ``. Direction of the mirror is called the object distance ( u ) used that tiny table blaring YMCA — song! A polished surface which reflects the incident light, they are considered to be negative Concave and Convex and! You use sign convention while solving problems as the mirror/lens formula is valid under all situations all... Always placed to the left of mirror ; all distances are measured from the vertex to the center of mirror... Distances measured along the direction of the mirror is a polished surface which reflects the incident light to form image. And Convex ) and for all object positions URL into your RSS.. Action by its icon, and Focal length ( f ) make sure the... But I hope this helps someone in the derivation will be cancelled sign... Perpendicular to the left of a lens maker formula you should make sure that answer! And Focal length ( f ) programs simultaneously in different countries other US presidents used that table!

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