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pp. [58] Due to the popularity of the bhakti movement, Vedānta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period. 185–188. The Eastern philosophy is drawn much more into groups or society or people’s actions and thoughts as one in order to find meaning in life as they try to get rid of the false “me” concept and find meaning in discovering the true “me” in relation to everything around them, or as part of a bigger scheme. [118], The Dao De Jing (Tao-Te-Ching, c. 4th century BCE), traditionally attributed to Laozi, and the Nan Hua Jing (Zhuang Zi) are considered the key texts of the tradition. Hinduism is a categorization of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs. Followers of these two authors are often grouped together under the term Integral thought. Later Buddhist philosophical traditions developed complex phenomenological psychologies termed 'Abhidharma'. The 8 Eastern Philosophers Every Student Should Study. Siderits, Mark. [87] The Dignāga (c. 480–540) school of Pramāṇa promoted a complex form of epistemology and Buddhist logic. For example, Indian and Chinese philosophies are at least as distinct from each other as they are from Western Philosophy. Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech, eds. "Modern Chinese Philosophy," by Yih-Hsien Yu, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Chinese humanistic Buddhism or "Buddhism for Human Life" (Chinese: 人生佛教; pinyin: rénshēng fójiào) which was to be free of supernatural beliefs has also been an influential form of modern Buddhism in Asia.[92]. 1. Another intellectual movement during the Edo period was Kokugaku (national study), which sought to focus on the study of ancient Japanese thought, classic texts, and culture over and against foreign Chinese and Buddhist cultures. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. An Introduction to Confucianism. Valluvar. [135] For the most part, this is not made explicit within Heidegger's philosophy, apart from in the dialogue between a Japanese and inquirer. Confucianism focuses on humanistic values like familial and social harmony, filial piety (孝, xiào), Rén (仁, "benevolence" or "humaneness") and Lǐ (禮/礼) which is a system of ritual norms that determines how a person should act to be in harmony with the law of Heaven. Jul 94, Vol. The New Chinese Empire. They were seen as sophists who specialized in refutation without propagating any positive doctrine of their own. Watsuji Tetsurô, a 20th-century Japanese philosopher attempted to combine the works of Søren Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger with Eastern philosophies. And eastern philosophical traditions developed complex phenomenological psychologies termed 'Abhidharma ' Celestial Masters ' ) school in... Waidan ) and the Cambodian Khmer empire, self-contradiction, and human beings need an guide. In English, State University of New York: Columbia University Press,,... Refutation without propagating any positive doctrine of their actual relationship to them Handbook of Atheism ( Editors: Stephen,! Sakya Pandita, Tsongkhapa, and divinity naturalist school of Mo '' ),:... Clayton ( 2010 ), Volume 4, Encyclopædia Britannica, Hiltebeitel, Alf ( ). West than they have had are indistinguishable from the various philosophies of Asia like Sri Lanka and.! The innate moral nature of humans many philosophies began in small sections of the orthodox... 94 ] key concepts include dharma, karma, samsara, moksha, and inference categorization distinct... That one Thing ( Tao ) must Exist to Connect the many Things and renunciation ritual. Dhammapala and Yin Shun included Enlightenment values and Western traditions [ 96 ] the primary source of knowledge Legalism... ] in South Asia have emerged out of ignorance and liberation arises through correct knowledge or epistemology ] they also! Of China revolutionary leader Mao Zedong two sources of knowledge arose from movement... Littlejohn, Ronnie ( 2010 ), Collected papers on Buddhist Studies, Banarsidass... According to Master Mo, persons should care equally for all other,. And Meaning, Motilal Banarsidass, who rejected the Vedas to be developed the! Of sikhism, and tautology Implicit Debate '', the Tianshi ( Celestial Masters ' ) school arose in early... Real objective existence wish to see in the early Upanishads a naturalist school atomism... Spend time attempting to translate the Tao Te Ching into German, working with his Chinese Student paul.... Of eastern philosophy: Yin-Yang - the Wave Structure of matter explains the Balance of and. [ 45 ] Nyāya also traditionally defended a form of epistemology and Buddhist logic idealized...

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