From a tutor whom he describes as "narrow-minded" he received advantageous guidance in his studies, but he attributes his improvement in manners and in knowledge of the world chiefly to the fact that, as was his "fate through life", he fell in "with clever but unpopular connexions".  In 1795 he described this to Dugald Stewart: Ritcheson is dubious on whether the journey with Smith actually happened, but provides no evidence to the contrary. By this survey Dr. Major-General Larcom, who carried to completion the Ordnance Survey of Ireland in the present century, bears the following testimony to the manner of its execution: Petty’s, “survey will always remain one of the most remarkable undertakings of which we have any record. Shelburne entertained a French peace envoy Joseph Matthias Gérard de Rayneval at his country estate in Wiltshire, and they discreetly agreed on a number of points which formed a basis for peace. Eventually a deal was agreed but it was heavily criticised for the perceived leniency of its terms as it handed back a number of captured territories to France and Spain. As a reward for his conduct at the Battle of Kloster Kampen, Shelburne was appointed an aide-de-camp to George III. London, 1860. Success came too early, and produced jealousy, especially when he was tagged as an upstart Irishman. However, it is very tricky to separate supposedly neutral ‘facts’ from ideological controversy, as is seen in the career of William Petty. Fitzmaurice (1737–1805), of Bowood, Wilts. ", This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 21:53. … It stands to this day, with the accompanying books of distribution, the legal record of the title on which half the land of Ireland is held; and for the purpose to which it was and is applied it remains sufficient.”.  In 1757 he took part in the amphibious Raid on Rochefort which withdrew without making any serious attempt on the town. The Down Survey, the maps, Petty’s contributions to geography, and his career in Ireland are thoroughly and admirably discussed by Goblet (Treguiz), La transformation de la geographie politique See also his A Topographical Index of the Parishes and Townlands of Ireland in Sir William Petty’s MSS. Shelburne's government was brought down largely due to the terms of the Peace of Paris which brought the conflict to an end. After Pitt's return to power in 1766 he became Southern Secretary, but during Pitt's illness his conciliatory policy towards America was completely thwarted by his colleagues and the King, and in 1768 he was dismissed from office. Twenty-five of his books and essays, chiefly upon scientific and social questions, are enumerated in the notice of him in Wood’s Athenæ Oxonienses. Petty, A Treatise of Ireland, 1687. Dublin, 1854–’9.  Though he had no active military career after this, his early promotion as colonel meant that he would be further promoted through seniority to major-general in 1765, lieutenant-general in 1772 and general in 1783..  He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1803. Its terms were considered excessively generous, because they gave the new nation control of vast trans-Appalachian lands. was “mightily pleased with his discourse.”. He estimated the population at 1,100,000 (800,000 Irish, 200,000 English, and 100,000 Scotch; or, 800,000 Catholics, 100,000 Established Church, and 200,000 Dissenters). Petty’s maiden speech was a justification of his conduct. 324a. In turn he distrusted others, and tried to do all the work himself so that it would be done right..  He became friends with one of his fellow officers Charles Grey whose career he later assisted. His account of the journey provides invaluable eyewitness testimony to the trauma and tragedy that many emigrants had to face en route to their new lives in Canada and America. On the younger son's death the Petty estates passed to the aforementioned John Fitzmaurice, who changed his branch of the family's surname to "Petty" in place of "Fitzmaurice", and was created Viscount Fitzmaurice later in 1751 and Earl of Shelburne in 1753 (after which his elder son John was styled Viscount Fitzmaurice). 142. He never understood the power of the House of Commons, or how to deal with its leaders. He estimated the number of families in Ireland at 200,000 (160,000 “with no fixed hearths”); and the number of houses at 40,000, of which 24,000 had only one chimney. [to 1702]. When Pitt was made Prime Minister in 1766, Shelburne was appointed as Southern Secretary, a position which he held for two years. London, 1849–’61. Shelburne, however, had a vision of long-term benefit to Britain through trade with a large and increasingly prosperous United States, without the risk of warfare over the western territories. Evelyn, John, Diary: Edited by William Bray. Mr. Prendergast writes, in his Cromwellian Settlement: “It was characteristic of the period, that this great step in perfecting the scheme of plantation was consecrated with all the forms of religion, the articles being signed by Dr. He was the beloved friend of many eminent men, including John Evelyn, who frequently mentions him in his diary: “If I were a prince, I would make him my second councillor at least.”, Macaulay styles him “the benevolent and enlightened Sir William Petty;” and says he “created the science of political arithmetic.”. Sir,—John Donoghue’s article (‘The curse of Cromwell: revisiting the Irish … The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, vol.  In response to the appointment the Duke of Richmond resigned a post in the royal household. Sir William Petty himself felt ... for the Survey and Distribution of the Forfeited Lands in Ireland, drawn up by Sir William Petty himself, in vindication of his conduct in the business, and in answer to the charges brought against him by Sir Jerome Sankey and others. Following the sudden and unexpected death of Lord Rockingham on 1 July 1782 Shelburne succeeded him as Prime Minister. , When Pitt became Prime Minister in 1784, Shelburne, instead of receiving a place in the Cabinet, was created Marquess of Lansdowne.  During the Corsican Crisis, sparked by the French invasion of Corsica, Shelburne was the major voice in the cabinet who favoured assisting the Corsican Republic. He advocated numerous reforms, especially free trade, religious toleration, and parliamentary reform. He was born William Fitzmaurice in Dublin in Ireland, the first son of John Fitzmaurice, who was the second surviving son of the 1st Earl of Kerry. Shelburne's appointment by the King provoked Charles James Fox and his supporters, including Edmund Burke, to resign their posts on 4 July 1782. Petty having made his fortune under the Commonwealth, obtained court favour and rank after the Restoration. Published in Issue 6 (November/December 2017), Letters, Volume 25.  However, on 14 May 1761, before either Parliament met, he succeeded on his father's death as 2nd Earl of Shelburne in the Peerage of Ireland and 2nd Baron Wycombe in the Peerage of Great Britain. PETTY, William, Visct. 4 vols. In Dublin he had founded a Philosophical Society over which he presided. He was on good terms with Benjamin Franklin and David Hume. Historians have often commented that the treaty was very generous to the United States in terms of greatly enlarged boundaries. 124. Dr. Shelburne's own envoys negotiated a separate peace with American commissioners which eventually led to an agreement on American independence and the borders of the newly created United States. 4d. He retired to the Continent during the early part of the civil war, and is stated to have worked as a carpenter at Caen in … “It was,” says John Mitchel, “in the Comity of Kerry that Dr. Sir William Petty had his principal estates. Petty, Sir William, M.D., one of the most successful of the many adventurers enriched by Irish confiscations in the 17th century, and a benefactor to Ireland by his survey and his economic writings, was the son of a clothier, and was born at Rumsey in Hampshire, 26th May 1623. For that reason, it conveys the reality of the calamity in a much more telling way. In December 1654 he entered into a contract with Government for the survey of Ireland at the rate of £7 3s. John Cannon, "Petty, William, second earl of Shelburne and first marquess of Lansdowne (1737–1805)", Charles R. Ritcheson, "The Earl of Shelbourne and Peace with America, 1782–1783: Vision and Reality.". He became involved in politics, becoming a member of parliament in 1760. Having moreover on account of his support of Pitt on the question of John Wilkes's expulsion from the House of Commons incurred the displeasure of the King, he retired for a time to his estate.. His task was completed in the amazingly short time of thirteen months. He met in Paris with leading French economists and intellectuals.
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